Vacante de exceptie in Bucovina

Manastirile pictate din Bucovina sunt primele destinatii turistice romanesti premiate cu "Marul de Aur", considerat a fi un premiu Oscar a turismului.

Tururi virtuale ale celor mai bune destinatii turistice din Bucovina

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Slatina - Traditii si obiceiuri

În Bucovina, sarbatorile au fost tinute din cele mai vechi timpuri au fost pastrate în mare parte si astazi. Toate obiceiurile sunt strâns legate de marile sarbatori din calendarul crestin, cum ar fi Craciunul, Boboteaza,Pa?tele, Sânzâienele sau de momentele esentiale ale vietii ca nasterea, botezul, nunta sau moartea.

Craciunul in Bucovina

Craciunul este sarbatoarea care se pastreaza, poate, mai mult decât în alte parti, fara mari abateri de la traditie. În preajma Craciunului, se recupereaza sau se restituie lucrurile împrumutate prin sat, deoarece se considera ca nu este bine sa ai lucruri împrumutate pe durata sarbatorilor de iarna.

În ziua de Ajun, femeile obisnuiesc sa ascunda fusele de la furca de tors sau sa introduca o piatra în cuptor, crezând ca indeparteaza, în acest fel, serpii din preajma gospodariei. În dimineata aceleiasi zile se obisnuia, pâna de curând, ca femeia sa iasa afara, cu mâinile pline de aluat, sa mearga în livada si sa atinga fiecare pom zicând: "cum sunt mâinile mele pline cu aluat, asa sa fie pomii încarcati cu rod la anul".

Datinile de Craciun sunt pregatite cu mult înainte, odata cu Postul Craciunului (15 noiembrie), când încep sa se constituie cetele de colindatori si se învata colindele ce vor fi rostite în timpul marii sarbatori.

Pastele in Bucovina

Pastele, alaturi de Craciun este una dintre cele mai importante sarbatori ale crestinatatii. Sarbatoarea începe de fapt cu Duminica Floriilor, când se sarbatoreste intrarea Mântuitorului în Ierusalim si continua cu Saptamâna Mare care are menirea împartasirii patimilor lui Hristos si sfârsitul celor 40 de zile de post.

Bucovina este recunoscuta pentru traditia pastrata nepatat pâna în zilele noastre legate de obiceiurile locului si de încondeiatul oualor. În Bucovina, în noaptea de Pasti, exista obiceiul aprinderii „focurilor de veghe”. Pe dealuri si coline sunt aprinse focuri puternice care ard toata noaptea. În jurul lor, se aduna satenii care povestesc întâmplari din viata lui Iisus, iar baietii sar pe deasupra focului, pentru a îndeparta duhurile rele. Tot în Bucovina, se obisnuieste ca, în noaptea de Înviere, fetele sa mearga în clopotnita bisericii din sat si sa spele limba clopotului cu „apa neînceputa”. Apa neînceputa presupune ca persoana care a scos-o din fântâna sa nu vorbeasca pâna când apa va fi folosita la spalatul clopotului. Apoi, în zorii zilei de Pasti, fetele se spala cu aceasta apa ca sa fie frumoase si atragatoare tot anul.

 De o frumusete si bogatie deosebita sunt si obiceiurile calendaristice de peste an.

Hramurile sunt si ele obiceiuri calendarilstice, legate de praznuirea patronilor bisericilor, prilej de întâlnire a familiilor cu rudele si cu membrii ce locuiesc în alte localitati.

Cele mai renumite hramuri din judet sunt cele de la Suceava de Sfântul Ioan sau Sânzâienele si cele de la Putna si Cacica de Adormirea Maicii Domnului pe 15 august. La acestea cel mai important rol îl au slujbele religioase care aduna an de an zeci de mii de credinciosi veniti din toate colturile tarii.

Si cele mai importante momente ale vietii omului sunt sarbatorite în mod deosebit în Bucovina. În special satele din Bucovina pastreaza, în mare parte, obiceiurile traditionale legate de celebrarea momentelor esentiale ale vietii cum ar fi, nunta, nasterea-botezul si înmormântarea.

Botezul

Botezul este evenimentul care încununeaza nasterea. Traditia spune ca pentru înlaturarea fortelor malefice, imediat dupa nastere se realizeaza o serie de practici care au ca scop protejarea noului-nascut. Astfel, punerea unui fir de ata rosie în tocul usii si legarea lui apoi la mâna copilului are ca efect înlaturarea deochiului. Apoi, punerea unui ban de argint si busuioc în prima baie a copilului duc la purificarea apei în care se face scaldatoarea. Dupa ce este scos din cristelnita si miruit, nasii copilului primesc noul crestin într-o pânza alba  numita crisma. Apoi îi ofera finului în dar articole de îmbracaminte.

Un obicei foarte interesant era acela al schimbarii numelui copilului când acesta este bolnav si pare a nu mai avea scapare: femeile opreau o persoana de pe drum careia i se dadea copilul pe geam împreuna cu o lumânare. Persoana straina îi schimba numele si îi dadea mamei copilul pe usa. Dupa aceasta, copilul era strigat cu numele schimbat pentru a nu mai fi recunoscut de boala.

Nunta

Nunta – eveniment de mare importanta în viata fiecarui om, este un moment marcat de multe obiceiuri si traditii pastrate vii de locuitorii Bucovinei. Avanpremiera nuntii o reprezinta logodna care era o promisiune solemna a celor care se vor casatori, iar în Bucovina avea valoarea unei jumatati de cununii. Taina logodnei presupunea un adevarat ritual: petitul, acordul familiilor în legatura cu conditiile nuntii si cu zestrea fiecarui mire, logodna si abia apoi nunta.

În ziua nuntii, domnisoara de onoare vine acasa la mireasa, iar cavalerul de onoare se duce acasa la mire. Obiceiul spune ca în timplul ritualului de împodobire a miresei, acesta trebuie sa plânga. Daca acest lucru nu se întampla, o femeie în vârsta îi aduce o ceapa zdrobita pentru a-i produce lacrimi.

În mometul în care mirele vine sa-si ia de acasa viitoarea sotie, familia miresei închide usile pentru a-i opri intrarea. Dupa ce se tocmesc, usa se deschide iar mirele poate sa-si ia mireasa.

Un alt obicei pastrat în unele locuri din Bucovina este iertaciunea; la acest moment amândoi mirii stau cu fata spre rasarit, mireasa sta în genunchi pe o perna si un covor, iar mirele sta în picioare cu mâna stânga pe umarul miresei. Semnificatia pernei pe care sta mireasa este ca viata ei, în postura de  sotie sa fie usoara si placuta ca perna cea moale.

La biserica, când li se pun verighetele, cei doi miri urmeza un alt obicei, potrivit caruia  cel care-l va calca primul pe picior pe celalat va avea suprematia în casnicie. În dimineata nuntii, schimbarea gatelii capului miresei, ce marcheaza trecerea miresei de la statutul de fata la cel de femeie maritata, voalul fiind dat unei alte fete care urmeaza sa se casatoreasca, este un moment cu reguli traditionale care nu poate fi încalcat.

Inmormantarea

Înmormântarea este un alt moment important al vietii. Locuitorii Bucovinei au pastrat legat de acest eveniment obiceiuri si traditii menite sa agigure contiunerea vietii în credinta crestina si dupa moarte.

Vestirea mortii unei persoane, se face prin tragerea clopotelor bisericii de trei ori pe zi, lung, pâna în ziua când se îngroapa mortul, iar serile se suna din trâmbite la casa mortului.

Dupa datina, înmormântarea are loc în a treia zi dupa moarte. Sicriul se duce cu carul cu boi, de preferat de culoare neagra, carora li se pune în coarne câte un prosop si un colac. Daca de la casa mortului pâna la biserica nu e distanta mare, mortul se duce cu nasalia, iar cei ce-l duc poarta câte un prosop prins peste piept.

Daca cei decedati sunt tineri necasatoriti, ceremonialul înmormântarii cuprinde si elemente de nunta, cum ar fi faptul ca cei disparuti sunt îmbracati în mire sau mireasa, fiind condusi pe ultimul drum însotiti de brad, vornicel si muzica.

Indiferent de vârsta, pentru fiecare mort se pregateste pomul, dintr-o ramura de pom împodobita cu pâine în difertite forme( pasari, scari) si fructe, care în credinta populara reprezinta pomul vietii de dupa moarte.

Pomenirea mortilor se face în cele sapte slujbe din postul Pastelui, în sâmbata mortilor si în duminicile de peste an, precum si cu prilejul hramurilor din comune.


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It was only after the partition of Poland that Russia began to play a great part in Europe. To such statesmen as she had then that act of brigandage must have appeared inspired by great political wisdom. The King of Prussia, faithful to the ruling principle of his life, wished simply to aggrandise his dominions at new balance factory store a much smaller cost and at much less risk than he could have done in any other direction; for at that time Poland was perfectly defenceless from a material point of view, and more than ever, perhaps, inclined to put its faith in humanitarian illusions. Morally, gucci bags the Republic was in a state of ferment and consequent weakness, which so often accompanies the period of social reform. The strength arrayed against her was just then overwhelming; I mean the comparatively honest (because open) strength of armed forces. But, probably from innate inclination towards new balance outlet online treachery, Frederick of Prussia selected for himself the part of falsehood and deception. Appearing on the scene in the character of a friend he entered deliberately into a treaty of alliance with the Republic, and then, before the ink was dry, tore it up in brazen Louis Vuitton Sunglasses defiance of the commonest decency, which must have been extremely gratifying to his natural tastes.

As to Austria, it shed diplomatic tears over the transaction. They cannot be called crocodile tears, insomuch that they were in a measure sincere. They arose from a vivid perception that Austria??s http://www.louisvuitton-lvoutlet.net allotted share of the spoil could never compensate her for the accession of strength and territory to the other two Powers. Austria did not really want an extension of territory at the cost of Poland. She could not hope to improve her frontier in that way, michael kors outlet and economically she had no need of Galicia, a province whose natural resources were undeveloped and whose salt mines did not arouse her cupidity because she had salt mines of her own. No doubt the democratic complexion of Polish institutions was very distasteful to the conservative Louis Vuitton Handbags monarchy; Austrian statesmen did see at the time that the real danger to the principle of autocracy was in the West, in France, and that all the forces of Central Europe would be needed for its suppression. But the movement towards a partage on the part louis vuitton handbags of Russia and Prussia was too definite to be resisted, and Austria had to follow their lead in the destruction of a State which she would have preferred to preserve as a possible ally against Prussian and Russian ambitions. It may be truly said that the louis vuitton bags destruction of Poland secured the safety of the French Revolution. For when in 1795 the crime was consummated, the Revolution had turned the corner and was in a state to defend itself against the forces of reaction.

In the second half of the eighteenth century there were michael kors outlet online two centres of liberal ideas on the continent of Europe: France and Poland. On an impartial survey one may say without exaggeration that then France was relatively every bit as weak as Poland; even, perhaps, more so. But France??s geographical position made her much less vulnerable. oakley sunglasses cheap She had no powerful neighbours on her frontier; a decayed Spain in the south and a conglomeration of small German Principalities on the east were her happy lot. The only States which dreaded the contamination of the new principles and had enough power to combat it oakley outlet sunglasses were Prussia, Austria, and Russia, and they had another centre of forbidden ideas to deal with in defenceless Poland, unprotected by nature, and offering an immediate satisfaction to their cupidity. They made their choice, and the untold sufferings of a nation which would not die was cheap oakley sunglasses the price exacted by fate for the triumph of revolutionary ideals.

Thus even a crime may become a moral agent by the lapse of time and the course of history. Progress leaves its dead by the way, for progress is only a great adventure as its leaders http://www.michaelkorsoutlet-mk.us.com and chiefs know very well in their hearts. It is a march into an undiscovered country; and in such an enterprise the victims do not count. As an emotional outlet for the oratory of freedom it was convenient enough to remember the Crime now and then: louis vuitton handbags the Crime being the murder of a State and the carving of its body into three pieces. There was really nothing to do but to drop a few tears and a few flowers of rhetoric upon the grave. But the spirit of the nation refused to Louis Vuitton Outlet stores rest therein. It haunted the territories of the Old Republic in the manner of a ghost haunting its ancestral mansion where strangers are making themselves at home; a calumniated, ridiculed, and pooh-pooh??d ghost, and yet never ceasing to inspire a sort of awe, a strange uneasiness, chanel outlet online in the hearts of the unlawful possessors. Poland deprived of its independence, of its historical continuity, with its religion and language persecuted and repressed, became a mere geographical expression. And even that, itself, seemed strangely vague, had lost its definite character, was rendered doubtful by the LV handbags theories and the claims of the spoliators who, by a strange effect of uneasy conscience, while strenuously denying the moral guilt of the transaction, were always trying to throw a veil of high rectitude over the Crime. What was most annoying to their righteousness was the Michael Kors handbags sale fact that the nation, stabbed to the heart, refused to grow insensible and cold. That persistent and almost uncanny vitality was sometimes very inconvenient to the rest of Europe also. It would intrude its irresistible claim into every problem of European politics, into the theory of Michael Kors handbags wholesale European equilibrium, into the question of the Near East, the Italian question, the question of Schleswig-Holstein, and into the doctrine of nationalities. That ghost, not content with making its ancestral halls uncomfortable for the thieves, haunted also the Cabinets of Europe, waved indecently its bloodstained robes Louis Vuitton Outlet Online in the solemn atmosphere of Council-rooms, where congresses and conferences sit with closed windows. It would not be exorcised by the brutal jeers of Bismarck and the fine railleries of Gorchakov.

As a Polish friend observed to me some years ago: ??Till the year ??48 the Polish michael kors outlet online store sale us problem has been to a certain extent a convenient rallying-point for all manifestations of liberalism. Since that time we have come to be regarded simply as a nuisance. It??s very disagreeable.??

I agreed that it was, and he continued: ??What are we to do? We did not LV Bags create the situation by any outside action of ours. Through all the centuries of its existence Poland has never been a menace to anybody, not even to the Turks, to whom it has been merely an obstacle.??

Nothing could be more true. The spirit of aggressiveness was LV Purses absolutely foreign to the Polish temperament, to which the preservation of its institutions and its liberties was much more precious than any ideas of conquest. Polish wars were defensive, and they were mostly fought within Poland??s own borders. And that those territories were often invaded was Louis Vuitton Handbags outlet but a misfortune arising from its geographical position. Territorial expansion was never the master-thought of Polish statesmen. The consolidation of the territories of the Serenissime Republic, which made of it a Power of the first rank for a time, was not accomplished by force. It was michael kors bags on sale not the consequence of successful aggression, but of a long and successful defence against the raiding neighbours from the East. The lands of Lithuanian and Ruthenian speech were never conquered by Poland. These peoples were not compelled by a series of exhausting wars to seek safety chanel factory outlet store in annexation. It was not the will of a prince or a political intrigue that brought about the union. Neither was it fear. The slowly-matured view of the economical and social necessities and, before all, the ripening moral sense of the masses were the motives that louis vuitton outlet 2015 induced the forty three representatives of Lithuanian and Ruthenian provinces, led by their paramount prince, to enter into a political combination unique in the history of the world, a spontaneous and complete union of sovereign States choosing deliberately the way of peace. Never was strict truth Michael Kors bags wholesale better expressed in a political instrument than in the preamble of the first union Treaty (1413). It begins with the words: ??This union, being the outcome not of hatred, but of love?? ?? words that Poles have not heard addressed to them politically by any nation new balance factory outlet for the last hundred and fifty years.

This union being an organic, living thing capable of growth and development was, later, modified and confirmed by two other treaties, which guaranteed to all the parties in a just and eternal union all their rights, liberties, and respective institutions. michael kors outlet online sale The Polish State offers a singular instance of an extremely liberal administrative federalism which, in its Parliamentary life as well as its international politics, presented a complete unity of feeling and purpose. As an eminent French diplomatist remarked many years ago: ??It is a very remarkable http://www.louisvuittonoutletsyear.com fact in the history of the Polish State, this invariable and unanimous consent of the populations; the more so that, the King being looked upon simply as the chief of the Republic, there was no monarchical bond, no dynastic fidelity to control and guide the sentiment wholesale michael kors of the nations, and their union remained as a pure affirmation of the national will.?? The Grand Duchy of Lithuania and its Ruthenian Provinces retained their statutes, their own administration, and their own political institutions. That those institutions in the course of time tended to assimilation louis vuitton wallets with the Polish form was not the result of any pressure, but simply of the superior character of Polish civilisation.

Even after Poland lost its independence this alliance and this union remained firm in spirit and fidelity. All the national movements towards liberation were initiated in the http://www.prada-outlet-onlines.net name of the whole mass of people inhabiting the limits of the old Republic, and all the Provinces took part in them with complete devotion. It is only in the last generation that efforts have been made to create a tendency towards separation, which would indeed louis vuitton store 2015 serve no one but Poland??s common enemies. And, strangely enough, it is the internationalists, men who professedly care nothing for race or country, who have set themselves this task of disruption, one can easily see for what sinister purpose. The ways of the internationalists may be http://www.2014guccioutletonline.com dark, but they are not inscrutable.

From the same source no doubt there will flow in the future a poisoned stream of hints of a reconstituted Poland being a danger to the races once so closely associated within the territories of the Old Republic. The old partners oakley outlet store in ??the Crime?? are not likely to forgive their victim its inconvenient and almost shocking obstinacy in keeping alive. They had tried moral assassination before and with some small measure of success, for, indeed, the Polish question, like all living reproaches, had become a nuisance. Given louis vuitton bags the wrong, and the apparent impossibility of righting it without running risks of a serious nature, some moral alleviation may be found in the belief that the victim had brought its misfortunes on its own head by its own sins. That theory, too, had been advanced oakley outlet about Poland (as if other nations had known nothing of sin and folly), and it made some way in the world at different times, simply because good care was taken by the interested parties to stop the mouth of the accused. But it has never carried michael kors outlet much conviction to honest minds. Somehow, in defiance of the cynical point of view as to the Force of Lies and against all the power of falsified evidence, truth often turns out to be stronger than calumny. With the course of years, however, another danger sprang Louis Vuitton Bags up, a danger arising naturally from the new political alliances dividing Europe into two armed camps. It was the danger of silence. Almost without exception the Press of Western Europe in the twentieth century refused to touch the Polish question in any shape or form whatever. Louis Vuitton Outlet Stores Never was the fact of Polish vitality more embarrassing to European diplomacy than on the eve of Poland??s resurrection.

When the war broke out there was something gruesomely comic in the proclamations of emperors and archdukes appealing to that invincible soul of a nation whose existence or moral worth they had been so arrogantly denying for more than a century. Perhaps in the whole record of human transactions there have never been performances so brazen and so vile as the manifestoes oakley outlet discount of the German Emperor and the Grand Duke Nicholas of Russia; and, I imagine, no more bitter insult has been offered to human heart and intelligence than the way in which those proclamations were flung into the face of historical truth. It was like a scene in a cynical and sinister farce, the absurdity of which became in some sort unfathomable by the reflection that nobody in the world could possibly be Michael Kors Purses so abjectly stupid as to be deceived for a single moment. At that time, and for the first two months of the war, I happened to be in Poland, and I remember perfectly well that, when those precious documents came out, the confidence in the moral Louis Vuitton wallets turpitude of mankind they implied did not even raise a scornful smile on the lips of men whose most sacred feelings and dignity they outraged. They did not deign to waste their contempt on them. In fact, the situation was too poignant and too involved for louis vuitton luggage either hot scorn or a coldly rational discussion. For the Poles it was like being in a burning house of which all the issues were locked. There was nothing but sheer anguish under the strange, as if stony, calmness which in the utter absence of all mk bags outlet hope falls on minds that are not constitutionally prone to despair. Yet in this time of dismay the irrepressible vitality of the nation would not accept a neutral attitude. I was told that even if there were no issue it was absolutely necessary for the Poles louis vuitton outlet to affirm their national existence. Passivity, which could be regarded as a craven acceptance of all the material and moral horrors ready to fall upon the nation, was not to be thought of for a moment. Therefore, it was explained to me, the Poles must act. Louis Vuitton Sunglasses Whether this was a counsel of wisdom or not it is very difficult to say, but there are crises of the soul which are beyond the reach of wisdom. When there is apparently no issue visible to the eyes of reason, sentiment may yet find a Louis vuitton outlet way out, either towards salvation or to utter perdition, no one can tell ?? and the sentiment does not even ask the question. Being there as a stranger in that tense atmosphere, which was yet not unfamiliar to me, I was not very anxious to parade oakley sunglasses wholesale my wisdom, especially after it had been pointed out in answer to my cautious arguments that, if life has its values worth fighting for, death, too, has that in it which can make it worthy or unworthy.

Out of the mental and moral trouble into which the Louis Vuitton Sale grouping of the Powers at the beginning of war had thrown the counsels of Poland there emerged at last the decision that the Polish Legions, a peace organisation in Galicia directed by Pilsudski (afterwards given the rank of General, and now apparently the Chief of the Louis Vuitton Purses Government in Warsaw), should take the field against the Russians. In reality it did not matter against which partner in the ??Crime?? Polish resentment should be directed. There was little to choose between the methods of Russian barbarism, which were both crude and rotten, and the Cheap Louis Vuitton cultivated brutality tinged with contempt of Germany??s superficial, grinding civilisation. There was nothing to choose between them. Both were hateful, and the direction of the Polish effort was naturally governed by Austria??s tolerant attitude, which had connived for years at the semi-secret organisation of the Polish cheap louis vuitton Legions. Besides, the material possibility pointed out the way. That Poland should have turned at first against the ally of Western Powers, to whose moral support she had been looking for so many years, is not a greater monstrosity than that alliance with Russia which had Louis Vuitton outlet been entered into by England and France with rather less excuse and with a view to eventualities which could perhaps have been avoided by a firmer policy and by a greater resolution in the face of what plainly appeared unavoidable.

For let the truth be spoken. The prada online outlet action of Germany, however cruel, sanguinary, and faithless, was nothing in the nature of a stab in the dark. The Germanic Tribes had told the whole world in all possible tones carrying conviction, the gently persuasive, the coldly logical; in tones Hegelian, Nietzschean, war-like, pious, cynical, chanel bags inspired, what they were going to do to the inferior races of the earth, so full of sin and all unworthiness. But with a strange similarity to the prophets of old (who were also great moralists and invokers of might) they seemed to be crying in Michael Kors satchel bag a desert. Whatever might have been the secret searching of hearts, the Worthless Ones would not take heed. It must also be admitted that the conduct of the menaced Governments carried with it no suggestion of resistance. It was no doubt, the effect of neither courage Cheap Louis Vuitton Bags nor fear, but of that prudence which causes the average man to stand very still in the presence of a savage dog. It was not a very politic attitude, and the more reprehensible in so far that it seemed to arise from the mistrust of their Louis Vuitton Outlet Handbags own people??s fortitude. On simple matters of life and death a people is always better than its leaders, because a people cannot argue itself as a whole into a sophisticated state of mind out of deference for a mere doctrine or from an exaggerated sense of Michael Kors outlet store its own cleverness. I am speaking now of democracies whose chiefs resemble the tyrant of Syracuse in this, that their power is unlimited (for who can limit the will of a voting people?) and who always see the domestic sword hanging by a hair above their Louis Vuitton bags heads.

Perhaps a different attitude would have checked German self-confidence, and her overgrown militarism would have died from the excess of its own strength. What would have been then the moral state of Europe it is difficult to say. Some other excess would probably have taken its gucci outlet place, excess of theory, or excess of sentiment, or an excess of the sense of security leading to some other form of catastrophe; but it is certain that in that case the Polish question would not have taken a concrete form for ages. Perhaps it would louis vuitton outlet 2015 never have taken form! In this world, where everything is transient, even the most reproachful ghosts end by vanishing out of old mansions, out of men??s consciences. Progress of enlightenment, or decay of faith? In the years before the war the Polish ghost was becoming so Louis Vuitton Sunglasses thin that it was impossible to get for it the slightest mention in the papers. A young Pole coming to me from Paris was extremely indignant, but I, indulging in that detachment which is the product of greater age, longer experience, and a habit of meditation, Louis Vuitton outlet online refused to share that sentiment. He had gone begging for a word on Poland to many influential people, and they had one and all told him that they were going to do no such thing. They were all men of ideas and therefore might have been Louis Vuitton Outlet Handbags called idealists, but the notion most strongly anchored in their minds was the folly of touching a question which certainly had no merit of actuality and would have had the appalling effect of provoking the wrath of their old enemies and at the same time offending oakley outlet online the sensibilities of their new friends. It was an unanswerable argument. I couldn??t share my young friend??s surprise and indignation. My practice of reflection had also convinced me that there is nothing on earth that turns quicker on its pivot than political idealism when touched by Michael Kors Outlet Handbags the breath of practical politics.

It would be good to remember that Polish independence as embodied in a Polish State is not the gift of any kind of journalism, neither is it the outcome even of some particularly benevolent idea or of any clearly apprehended sense of discount oakley sunglasses guilt. I am speaking of what I know when I say that the original and only formative idea in Europe was the idea of delivering the fate of Poland into the hands of Russian Tsarism. And, let us remember, it was assumed then to be a michael kors handbags victorious Tsarism at that. It was an idea talked of openly, entertained seriously, presented as a benevolence, with a curious blindness to its grotesque and ghastly character. It was the idea of delivering the victim with a kindly smile and the confident assurance that ??it would prada outlet online be all right?? to a perfectly unrepentant assassin, who, after sawing furiously at its throat for a hundred years or so, was expected to make friends suddenly and kiss it on both cheeks in the mystic Russian fashion. It was a singularly nightmarish combination of international Louis Vuitton Outlet Store polity, and no whisper of any other would have been officially tolerated. Indeed, I do not think in the whole extent of Western Europe there was anybody who had the slightest mind to whisper on that subject. Those were the days of the dark future, when LV Bags Benckendorf put down his name on the Committee for the Relief of Polish Populations driven by the Russian armies into the heart of Russia, when the Grand Duke Nicholas (the gentleman who advocated a St. Bartholomew??s Night for the suppression of Russian liberalism) was displaying his Louis Vuitton Bags 2015 ??divine?? (I have read the very word in an English newspaper of standing) strategy in the great retreat, where Mr. Iswolsky carried himself haughtily on the banks of the Seine; and it was beginning to dawn upon certain people there that he was a greater nuisance Michael Kors outlet even than the Polish question.

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"I was awake one night and turned on my radio, and I heard them announce that Sam Walton was therichest man inAmerica. And I thought, 'Sam Walton. Why, he was louis vuitton handbags in my class.' And I got so excited."HELEN WILLIAMS,former history and speech teacher atHickmanHigh SchoolinColumbia,MissouriSuccess has always had its price, new balance outlet online I guess, and I learned that lesson the hard way in October of 1985whenForbes magazine named me the so-called "richest Michael Kors store man inAmerica." Well, it wasn't too hard toimagine all those newspaper and TV folks up inNew Yorksaying "Who" and "He louis vuitton outlet lives where" The nextthing we knew, reporters and photographers started flocking down here to Bentonville, I guess to takepictures of Michael Kors wallet me diving into some swimming pool full of money they imagined I had, or to watch me light bigfat cigars prada outlet online with $100 bills while the hootchy-kootchy girls danced by the lake.

I really don't know what they thought, but I wasn't mk bags outlet about to cooperate with them. So they found out allthese exciting things about me, like: I drove an old pickup Louis Vuitton Outlet Online truck with cages in the back for my bird dogs,or I wore a Wal-Mart ball cap, or I got my chanel bags hair cut at the barbershop just off the townsquaresomebody with a telephoto lens even snuck up and took a picture http://www.chevrecakes.com of me in the barber chair, andit was in newspapers all over the country. Then folks we'd never heard of Louis Vuitton Bags started calling us and writing usfrom all over the world and coming here to ask us for money. Many of Louis Vuitton Outlet online them represented worthy causes,I'm sure, but we also heard from just about every harebrained, cockamamy schemer in the world. Iremember Louis Vuitton Store one letter from a woman who just came right out and said, "I've never been able to afford the$100,000 house new balance factory outlet I've always wanted. Will you give me the money" They still do it to this day, write orcall asking for new Louis Vuitton a new car, or money to go on a vacation, or to get some dental workwhatever comesinto their minds.

Now, I'm michael kors satchel bags outlets a friendly fellow by natureI always speak to folks in the street and suchand my wife Helen isas genial and LV Purses outgoing as she can be, involved in all sorts of community activities, and we've always livedvery much out in the Louis Vuitton Handbags outlet open. But we really thought there for a while that this "richest" thing was going toruin our whole lifestyle. We've Louis Vuitton Outlet Online always tried to do our share, but all of a sudden everybody expected us topay their way too. And nosy Michael Kors satchel bag people from the media would call our house at all hours and get downrightrude when we'd tell them no, you Michael Kors wallets on sale can't bring a TV crew out to the house, or no, we don't want yourmagazine to spend a week photographing chanel outlet online the lives of the Waltons, or no, I don't have time to share mylife story with you. It made me Michael Kors outlet stores mad, anyway, that all they wanted to talk about was my family's personalfinances. They weren't even interested in Wal-Mart, which Michael Kors purse outlet was probably one of the best business storiesgoing on anywhere in the world at the time, but it never even cheap Michael Kors bags on sale occurred to them to ask about thecompany. The impression I got is that most media folksand some Wall Street types Michael Kors handbags sale tooeither thoughtwe were just a bunch of bumpkins selling socks off the back of a truck, or that we were Louis Vuitton Outlet some kind offast buck artists or stock scammers. And when they did write about the company they either got it Michael Kors outlet store wrongor just made fun of us.

So the Walton family almost instinctively put a pretty tight lid on personal publicity for michael kors handbags any of us, althoughwe kept living out in the open and going around visiting folks in the stores all the Michael Kors purses time. Fortunately, here inBentonville, our friends and neighbors protected us from a lot of these scavengers. But I did getambushed michael kors bags on sale by the "Lifestyles of the Rich and Famous" guy at a tennis tournament I was playing in, andHelen talked to Louis Vuitton Sale one of the women's magazines for an article. The media usually portrayed me as a reallycheap, eccentric recluse, sort of Louis vuitton outlet a hillbilly who more or less slept with his dogs in spite of having billionsof dollars stashed away in a Michael Kors handbags outlet stores cave. Then when the stock market crashed in 1987, and Wal-Mart stockdropped along with everything else in the market, everybody michael kors outlet online sale wrote that I'd lost a half billion dollars.

When they asked me about it I said, "It's only paper," and they Louis Vuitton Bags 2015 had a good time with that.

But now I'd like to explain some of my attitudes about moneyup to a point. Louis Vuitton Outlet Handbags After that, our financeslikethose of any other normal-thinking American familyare nobody's business but our own. No questionabout it, a lot chanel factory outlet store of my attitude toward money stems from growing up during a pretty hardscrabble time inour country's history: the Great Depression. http://www.louisvuitton--outletstore.net And this heartland area we come from out hereMissouri,Oklahoma,Kansas,Arkansaswas hard hit during that Dust Bowl era. I was born in Louis Vuitton Outlet Kingfisher,Oklahoma, in 1918 and lived there until I was about five, but my earliest memories are ofSpringfield,Missouri,where I started school, louis vuitton luggage and later of the littleMissouritown ofMarshall. After that, we lived in Shelbina,Missouri, where I started high school, and still later gucci outlet 2014 Columbia, where I finished high school and went onto college.

My dad, Thomas Gibson Walton, was an awfully hard worker who cheap louis vuitton bags got up early, put in long hours, andwas honest. Completely, totally honest, remembered by most people for his integrity. He Michael Kors Outlet Handbags was also a bitof a character, who loved to trade, loved to make a deal for just about anything: horses, michael kors outlet online sale store mules, cattle,houses, farms, cars. Anything. Once he traded our farm in Kingfisher for another one, near Omega,Oklahoma. Another time, he prada online outlet traded his wristwatch for a hog, so we'd have meat on the table. And hewas the best negotiator I ever Louis Vuitton Sale ran into. My dad had that unusual instinct to know how far he could gowith someoneand did it in a Cheap Louis Vuitton way that he and the guy always parted friendsbut he would embarrass mewith some of the offers he would make, Michael Kors Outlet they were so low. That's one reason I'm probably not the bestnegotiator in the world; I lack the ability to michael kors crossbody bags squeeze that last dollar. Fortunately, my brother Bud, who hasbeen my partner from early on, inherited my dad's ability to Louis Vuitton Bags negotiate.

Dad never had the kind of ambition or confidence to build much of a business on his own, and he cheap Michael Kors bags usa didn'tbelieve in taking on debt. When I was growing up, he had all sorts of jobs. He was a banker gucci outlet and afarmer and a farm-loan appraiser, and an agent for both insurance and real estate. For a few months,early in Michael Kors online outlet the Depression, he was out of work altogether, and eventually he went to work for his brother'sWalton Mortgage Co., which Michael Kors handbags outlet online store was an agent for Metropolitan Life Insurance. Dad became the guy whohad to service Metropolitan's old farm loans, most of Louis Vuitton Bags which were in default. In twenty-nine and thirty andthirty-one, he had to repossess hundreds of farms from wonderful people whose Michael Kors crossbody handbags families had owned theland forever. I traveled with him some, and it was tragic, and really hard on Dad too louis vuitton stores but he tried to do itin a way that left those farmers with as much of their self-respect as he Louis Vuitton wallets could. All of this must have madean impression on me as a kid, although I don't ever remember saying anything louis vuitton store 2015 to myself like "I'll never bepoor."We never thought of ourselves as poor, although we certainly didn't have much of what michael kors outlet online sale you'd calldisposable income lying around, and we did what we could to raise a dollar here and there. For example,my mother, Nan Walton, got the idea during the Depression to start a little milk business. I'd get up earlyin the morning and milk the cows, Mother would prepare and bottle the milk, and I'd deliver it afterfootball practice in the afternoons. We had ten or twelve customers, who paid ten cents a gallon. Best ofall, Mother would skim the cream and make ice http://www.wholesalemichaelkorsbags-online.com cream, and it's a wonder I wasn't known as Fat SamWalton in those days from all the ice cream I ate.

I also started selling magazine subscriptions, probably as young as seven or eight years old, and I hadpaper routes from Michael Kors bags wholesale the seventh grade all the way through college. I raised and sold rabbits and pigeonstoo, nothing really unusual for country Louis Vuitton Purses boys of that era.

I learned from a very early age that it was important for us kids to help provide michael kors outlet online store sale us for the home, to becontributors rather than just takers. In the process, of course, we learned how much hard work offical michael kors outlet clearance it took toget your hands on a dollar, and that when you did it was worth something. One thing my new balance factory store mother and dadshared completely was their approach to money: they just didn't spend it.

BUD WALTON:

"People can't understand why we're still gucci bags so conservative. They make a big deal about Sam being abillionaire and driving an old pickup truck or buying his Cheap Louis Vuitton Bags clothes at Wal-Mart or refusing to fly first class.

"It's just the way we were brought up.

"When a penny is lying new Louis Vuitton out there on the street, how many people would go out there and pick it up I'llbet I would. And louis vuitton bags I know Sam would."STEPHEN PUMPHREY, PHOTOGRAPHER:

"Once I was setting up to photograph Sam out on the tarmac of some little Louis Vuitton outlet online airport inMissouri. He wasover filing a flight plan, and I threw a nickel down on the pavementtrying to be cuteand Michael Kors outlet sale said to myassistant: 'Lets see if he picks it up.' Planes are landing and taking off, and Sam comes walking Louis Vuitton Outlet stores over in abig hurry, a little put out that he has to pose for another picture. 'Okay,' he says, 'where find cheap michael kors bag do you want meto standon that nickel'"By the time I got out in the world ready to make something of Louis Vuitton Sunglasses myself, I already had a strongly ingrainedrespect for the value of a dollar. But my knowledge about money and finances Louis Vuitton Outlet Stores probably wasn't all thatsophisticated in spite of the business degree I had. Then I got to know Helen's family, and Michael Kors Purses listening to herfather, L. S. Robson, was an education in itself. He influenced me a great deal. He was a Louis Vuitton Outlet stores great salesman,one of the most persuasive individuals I have ever met. And I am sure his success as a trader louis vuitton wallets and abusinessman, his knowledge of finance and the law, and his philosophy had a big effect on me. Mycompetitive nature Michael Kors bags was such that I saw his success and admired it. I didn't envy it. I admired it. I said tomyself: prada outlet maybe I will be as successful as he is someday.

The Robsons were very smart about the way they handled their http://www.cheaplouisvuittonbagso.com finances: Helen's father organized hisranch and family businesses as a partnership, and Helen and her brothers were all partners. They LV Bags all tookturns doing the ranch books and things like that. Helen has a B.S. degree in finance, which back then http://www.louisvuitton-sunglassess.com wasreally unusual for a woman. Anyway, Mr. Robson advised us to do the same thing with our family, andwe did, michael kors bags wholesale way back in 1953. What little we had at the time, we put into a partnership with our kids, whichwas cheaps michael kors wallets later incorporated into Walton Enterprises.
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