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... Muzeul Satului Bucovinean este cel mai tânar dintre muzeele în aer liber ale României?
În Bucovina, sarbatorile au fost tinute din cele mai vechi timpuri au fost pastrate în mare parte si astazi. Toate obiceiurile sunt strâns legate de marile sarbatori din calendarul crestin, cum ar fi Craciunul, Boboteaza,Pa?tele, Sânzâienele sau de momentele esentiale ale vietii ca nasterea, botezul, nunta sau moartea.
Craciunul este sarbatoarea care se pastreaza, poate, mai mult decât în alte parti, fara mari abateri de la traditie. În preajma Craciunului, se recupereaza sau se restituie lucrurile împrumutate prin sat, deoarece se considera ca nu este bine sa ai lucruri împrumutate pe durata sarbatorilor de iarna.
În ziua de Ajun, femeile obisnuiesc sa ascunda fusele de la furca de tors sau sa introduca o piatra în cuptor, crezând ca indeparteaza, în acest fel, serpii din preajma gospodariei. În dimineata aceleiasi zile se obisnuia, pâna de curând, ca femeia sa iasa afara, cu mâinile pline de aluat, sa mearga în livada si sa atinga fiecare pom zicând: "cum sunt mâinile mele pline cu aluat, asa sa fie pomii încarcati cu rod la anul".
Datinile de Craciun sunt pregatite cu mult înainte, odata cu Postul Craciunului (15 noiembrie), când încep sa se constituie cetele de colindatori si se învata colindele ce vor fi rostite în timpul marii sarbatori.
Pastele, alaturi de Craciun este una dintre cele mai importante sarbatori ale crestinatatii. Sarbatoarea începe de fapt cu Duminica Floriilor, când se sarbatoreste intrarea Mântuitorului în Ierusalim si continua cu Saptamâna Mare care are menirea împartasirii patimilor lui Hristos si sfârsitul celor 40 de zile de post.
Bucovina este recunoscuta pentru traditia pastrata nepatat pâna în zilele noastre legate de obiceiurile locului si de încondeiatul oualor. În Bucovina, în noaptea de Pasti, exista obiceiul aprinderii „focurilor de veghe”. Pe dealuri si coline sunt aprinse focuri puternice care ard toata noaptea. În jurul lor, se aduna satenii care povestesc întâmplari din viata lui Iisus, iar baietii sar pe deasupra focului, pentru a îndeparta duhurile rele. Tot în Bucovina, se obisnuieste ca, în noaptea de Înviere, fetele sa mearga în clopotnita bisericii din sat si sa spele limba clopotului cu „apa neînceputa”. Apa neînceputa presupune ca persoana care a scos-o din fântâna sa nu vorbeasca pâna când apa va fi folosita la spalatul clopotului. Apoi, în zorii zilei de Pasti, fetele se spala cu aceasta apa ca sa fie frumoase si atragatoare tot anul.
De o frumusete si bogatie deosebita sunt si obiceiurile calendaristice de peste an.
Cele mai renumite hramuri din judet sunt cele de la Suceava de Sfântul Ioan sau Sânzâienele si cele de la Putna si Cacica de Adormirea Maicii Domnului pe 15 august. La acestea cel mai important rol îl au slujbele religioase care aduna an de an zeci de mii de credinciosi veniti din toate colturile tarii.
Si cele mai importante momente ale vietii omului sunt sarbatorite în mod deosebit în Bucovina. În special satele din Bucovina pastreaza, în mare parte, obiceiurile traditionale legate de celebrarea momentelor esentiale ale vietii cum ar fi, nunta, nasterea-botezul si înmormântarea.
Botezul este evenimentul care încununeaza nasterea. Traditia spune ca pentru înlaturarea fortelor malefice, imediat dupa nastere se realizeaza o serie de practici care au ca scop protejarea noului-nascut. Astfel, punerea unui fir de ata rosie în tocul usii si legarea lui apoi la mâna copilului are ca efect înlaturarea deochiului. Apoi, punerea unui ban de argint si busuioc în prima baie a copilului duc la purificarea apei în care se face scaldatoarea. Dupa ce este scos din cristelnita si miruit, nasii copilului primesc noul crestin într-o pânza alba numita crisma. Apoi îi ofera finului în dar articole de îmbracaminte.
Un obicei foarte interesant era acela al schimbarii numelui copilului când acesta este bolnav si pare a nu mai avea scapare: femeile opreau o persoana de pe drum careia i se dadea copilul pe geam împreuna cu o lumânare. Persoana straina îi schimba numele si îi dadea mamei copilul pe usa. Dupa aceasta, copilul era strigat cu numele schimbat pentru a nu mai fi recunoscut de boala.
Nunta – eveniment de mare importanta în viata fiecarui om, este un moment marcat de multe obiceiuri si traditii pastrate vii de locuitorii Bucovinei. Avanpremiera nuntii o reprezinta logodna care era o promisiune solemna a celor care se vor casatori, iar în Bucovina avea valoarea unei jumatati de cununii. Taina logodnei presupunea un adevarat ritual: petitul, acordul familiilor în legatura cu conditiile nuntii si cu zestrea fiecarui mire, logodna si abia apoi nunta.
În ziua nuntii, domnisoara de onoare vine acasa la mireasa, iar cavalerul de onoare se duce acasa la mire. Obiceiul spune ca în timplul ritualului de împodobire a miresei, acesta trebuie sa plânga. Daca acest lucru nu se întampla, o femeie în vârsta îi aduce o ceapa zdrobita pentru a-i produce lacrimi.
În mometul în care mirele vine sa-si ia de acasa viitoarea sotie, familia miresei închide usile pentru a-i opri intrarea. Dupa ce se tocmesc, usa se deschide iar mirele poate sa-si ia mireasa.
Un alt obicei pastrat în unele locuri din Bucovina este iertaciunea; la acest moment amândoi mirii stau cu fata spre rasarit, mireasa sta în genunchi pe o perna si un covor, iar mirele sta în picioare cu mâna stânga pe umarul miresei. Semnificatia pernei pe care sta mireasa este ca viata ei, în postura de sotie sa fie usoara si placuta ca perna cea moale.
La biserica, când li se pun verighetele, cei doi miri urmeza un alt obicei, potrivit caruia cel care-l va calca primul pe picior pe celalat va avea suprematia în casnicie. În dimineata nuntii, schimbarea gatelii capului miresei, ce marcheaza trecerea miresei de la statutul de fata la cel de femeie maritata, voalul fiind dat unei alte fete care urmeaza sa se casatoreasca, este un moment cu reguli traditionale care nu poate fi încalcat.
Înmormântarea este un alt moment important al vietii. Locuitorii Bucovinei au pastrat legat de acest eveniment obiceiuri si traditii menite sa agigure contiunerea vietii în credinta crestina si dupa moarte.
Vestirea mortii unei persoane, se face prin tragerea clopotelor bisericii de trei ori pe zi, lung, pâna în ziua când se îngroapa mortul, iar serile se suna din trâmbite la casa mortului.
Dupa datina, înmormântarea are loc în a treia zi dupa moarte. Sicriul se duce cu carul cu boi, de preferat de culoare neagra, carora li se pune în coarne câte un prosop si un colac. Daca de la casa mortului pâna la biserica nu e distanta mare, mortul se duce cu nasalia, iar cei ce-l duc poarta câte un prosop prins peste piept.
Daca cei decedati sunt tineri necasatoriti, ceremonialul înmormântarii cuprinde si elemente de nunta, cum ar fi faptul ca cei disparuti sunt îmbracati în mire sau mireasa, fiind condusi pe ultimul drum însotiti de brad, vornicel si muzica.
Indiferent de vârsta, pentru fiecare mort se pregateste pomul, dintr-o ramura de pom împodobita cu pâine în difertite forme( pasari, scari) si fructe, care în credinta populara reprezinta pomul vietii de dupa moarte.
Pomenirea mortilor se face în cele sapte slujbe din postul Pastelui, în sâmbata mortilor si în duminicile de peste an, precum si cu prilejul hramurilor din comune.
22 Septembrie 2016
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29 Iulie 2016
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28 Iulie 2016
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17 Iulie 2016
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02 Iulie 2016
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